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The contributions of the Indian mathematicians start from the Indus valley civilization and the Vedas, up to the modern times. Indian mathematicians have made a number of important contributions to mathematics including place-value arithmetical notation and the concept of zero.
During the Vedic Age, the noted Indian mathematicians include the names of Apastamba, Baudhayana, Katyayana, Manava, Panini and Yajnavalkya, who was credited with authorship of the Shatapatha Brahmana, which contains calculations related to altar construction. Baudhayana, the mathematician and also a priest was noted as the author of the earliest Sulba Sutra, appendices to the Vedas giving rules for the construction of altars - called the Baudhayana Sulbasutra. This book contains several important mathematical results. The Dharmasutra of Apastamba forms a part of the larger Kalpas?tra of ?pastamba, containing almost thirty prasnas, which literally means `questions` or books. The subjects of this Dharmasutra are well organized and conserved in good condition. These prasanas comprise of the ?rautasutra followed by Mantrapadha which is used in domestic rituals and is a collection of ritual formulas.
Aryabhatta is the first in the line of great Indian mathematicians-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. His most famous works are the Aryabhatiya and Arya-Siddhanta. Bhaskara was one of the 7th century Indian mathematicians, who was apparently the first to write numbers in the Hindu-Arabic decimal system with a circle for the zero, and who gave a unique and noteworthy rational approximation of the sine function in his interpretation on Aryabhata`s work. Jayadeva was a ninth-century Indian mathematician, who further worked on the cyclic method (chakravala method) that was called by Hermann Hankel the premium success achieved in the theory of numbers before Lagrange (18th century). He also made momentous contributions to combinatorics.
Gopala, one of the noted Indian mathematicians studied the Fibonacci numbers in 1135, more than half a century before Fibonacci popularised these numbers in Europe. Pingala was an ancient Indian writer, famous for his work, the Chandas Shastra, a Sanskrit treatise on prosody considered one of the Vedanga and he developed advanced mathematical concepts for describing the patterns of prosody. Some of the famous Indian mathematicians of the later age are Srinivasa Ramanujan, A. A. Krishnaswami Ayyangar, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, D. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, Harish-Chandra, Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao, Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar, Ramdas Lotu Bhirud, Jayant Narlikar and many others.
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