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  3. Programming & Design

Programming & Design


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    What is the way to access the deep web?

    I hear that there is lots of information and pictures that are accessible in the deep web. I would like to know information about how to access the deep web.

    5 Answers3 days ago
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    Why don't computers run on coal?

    No more need for batteries, or unsightly cords.

    34 Answers2 weeks ago
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    Just found an old CD-RW with files on it, including a yahoo messenger executable ?

    Favourite answer:

    Nope.  Unless you learn coding, even if you had the source code you wouldn't know what you're looking at.  Even hackers who steal and crack software need to know coding inside and out.

    9 Answers2 weeks ago
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    Batch convert tiff files to jpg.?

    Favourite answer:

    Try the "Irfanview" program:

    It is capable of configurable batch conversions.

    4 Answers2 weeks ago
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    What is the difference between MS-DOS and Windows Command?

    Favourite answer:

    The difference is not in what commands it can do or can't (there are some differences, like in anything in more than 20 years. But yes, windows command inherit from the MS-Dos shell. It is the same thing).

    The difference is in what it is. You are confusing an Operating System and a Shell.

    Operating system is what makes the machine work, run programs, access to hardware (memory, hard disk, peripherals such as sound card, graphics card, keyboard, ...), schedule concurrent programs, ...

    Shell is just one interface to that. The CLI (command line interface) to discuss with the OS.

    In MS-DOS there was only one standard shell (but you could find some others. Hackers all used back then more powerful shells, some sort of extension of the shell. In my last years of MS-Dos, I was using tcsh, a shell from the Unix world). In windows you also have powershell (so I have been told. I've not put a hand on a windows machine in a while). Or bash (I am not referring to what lot of people call improperly bash, and is a whole linux. Same dichotomy goes in unix world: unix or gnu/linux is the OS. Bash is just one CLI to it, which represents less than 1% of the code of the OS)

    Graphical interface is another.

    So you are comparing

    * A shell : just a program, a CLI, whose job is pretty simple (read a command line, execute it. Of course, it is not that simple, since those commands can be sophisticated, but still, it is just one program, whose job is to start other program. It doesn't schedule it, it doesn't allocate ressource to it. It does nothing. It just ask the OS to do it.

    * An OS : that allocate resources, manages drivers, hardware, ...

    Windows is the OS. Windows command is A Shell (the default one).

    MS-DOS is the OS. is A shell (the default one).

    So, in other words, if your question had been "what is the difference between Windows Command and MS-Doss shell", answer would have been "nothing, but 20 years of small improvements". It is the same code. 20 years later. One is just a more recent version of the other.

    But since you asked "what is the difference between MS-DOS and Windows Command", we may assume that you believe that windows command is a small OS inside the Windows OS, which is not at all the case, and reply "they have nothing to do which each other. One is an OS, the other is a CLI shell".

    Again, understand that there is an OS. And there are user interface so that the user can interact with that OS.

    That user interface can be CLI (like MS-DOS's, or like Windows-command, or like bash) or can be graphical (like old windows 3.1 or like Windows graphical interface, or like Gnome)

    The confusion is made easier to make, considering windows history. Once upon a time, MS-DOS was the OS. It was running, fullscreen, by default, at startup, a CLI,, and from that CLI you could decide to run any program, including another interface, such as windows 3.1, which was not an OS, but just an alternative graphical interface to MS-DOS.

    Nowadays, it is the otherway. Windows is the OS. It runs fullscreen, by default, at startup, a graphical interface. From which you can decide to run any program, including other interface, such as Windows command, which is not an OS, but just another text interface to the Windows OS.

    Since people often confuse the MS-Dos OS and its default text interface, and also confuse the Windows OS with its graphical interface, it gives the feeling that once upon a time "DOS was used to start windows" and now "Windows is used to start DOS".

    12 Answers3 weeks ago
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    Is programming about remembering code?

    Favourite answer:

    No . It is about learning the language. And learning how to use the language to solve problems. Not to use other people's code without knowing what it does 

    10 Answers3 weeks ago
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    What is your favorite programming language and why?

    I am learning how to program.  The first programming language I started with was Java.  I am now learning Python.  Out of the two, I have got to say I am really liking Python? Wbu?

    5 Answers3 weeks ago
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    Driving beginner?

    Im learning how to drive, but i want to kn ow how to get to a location and how streets avenues work.

    5 Answers3 weeks ago
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    Can I refer to myself as a Digital and Graphic Designer offering web and graphic design?


    I am trying to categorize my freelance business. 

    My skills include web design, coding, web development and graphic design. Can I call myself a Digital and Graphic Designer? 

    Or is there a better title?


    5 Answers4 weeks ago
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    Is there any website that I can create a Politics group?

    I would like to have a politics group or a Free Speech Website  but I can't find one that don't cost me anything.

    I found a World Press but there's a charges for domain. I didn't want to pay just for a website because I just want a site for fun and for entertainment only. Thanks! Justme_Ria

    6 Answers1 month ago
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    What I must know before creating a WordPress website?

    Favourite answer:

    Well, you will need a domain. And a web host. And basic knowledge of Wordpress. And - most important - content.

    6 Answers1 month ago
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    Can EXIF data be manipulated?

    5 Answers1 month ago
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    Subtraction using hexadecimal numbers?

    Favourite answer:

    0x0E - 0xFF is NOT +15.

    It is -241.

    Do not confuse two, completely unrelated, problems.

    * Hexadecimal

    * Representation of negative number.

    Claiming 0x0E-0xFF=+15 is exactly (really exactly) the same thing as saying "14-255=15".

    The only reason why people don't see how obviously false it is when using hexa, and see it when using decimal, is just because we do a mental confusion with "hexa -> low level" and "low level -> -15 and 241 has the same 8 bit representation".

    So In hexa substraction is done exactly like in decimal




    FF is bigger than 0E, so do the reverse subtraction and add a minus sign


    F-E=1, no carry. Last digit of result is 1.

    F-0=F, no carry. First digit is F.

    No other computation

    So 0x0E-0xFF = -0xF1

    A more complex example




    5-B = -6, which is negative. So add 10 (0x10) and carry 1. Last digit is 0x5-0xB+0x10 = 0xA

    A-8-1 (-1 because of previous carry) is 1.


    So 3 digits of the result are 11A


    So subtraction in hexa is just a subtraction, like in all other bases. a-b is -(b-a) (which is how you compute it if b is bigger than a). a - (-b) is a+b. Etc.

    And to compute it by hand, you just perform digit per digit subtraction from right to left, sometimes carrying a 1.

    Exactly like you do in base 10.

    A completely unrelated matter is the fact that, on a computer, with limited bits to represent integers, you can represent only a given different numbers.

    On 8 bits, you can represent only 256 different values.

    There are different choices of mapping between the 256 possible combination of eight 0 or 1, and 256 integers values.

    The most commons are the unsigned binary one (00000000 -> 0, 00000001 -> 1, ..., 01111111 -> 127, 10000000 -> 128, 10000001 -> 129, ...,  11111110 -> 254, 11111111 -> 255)

    and the signed one

    (00000000 -> 0, 00000001 -> 1, ..., 01111111 -> 127, 10000000 -> -128, 10000001 -> -127, ..., 11111110 -> -2, 11111111 -> -1)

    Advantage of that signed representation is that, for lot of operations, it is transparent for the processor. Processor doesn't need to know whether a packet of 8 bits represent a signed or unsigned value to perform the operation. Result will be the same, and interpretation is up to the user.

    10000001 + 00000001 = 10000010 whatever.

    It is up to you to interpret that as meaning

    129 + 1 = 130

    or meaning

    -127 + 1 = -126.

    Both are true anyway, but from an electronic point of view, it is the same 10000001+00000001=10000010 computation)

    But that leads to the fact that 129 and -127 have the same representation (depending on whether you choose to interpret 10000001 as signed or unsigned).

    130 and -126 also.

    And, in your case, 1 and 255 also. -241 and +15 also.

    That is true even in hexa.

    0xFF and 0x01 have the same 8 bits representation. So do -0xF1 and 0x0F.

    The only reason why you are most used to see it in hexa, is because of a coincidence : the cases when you may want to say "-0xF1 and 0x0F have the same 8 bits representation" happens to be the same as those when you may want to use hexadecimal : when you are interested in memory content of a computer, bytes by bytes.

    In an algebra lesson you would never bother to talk about 8 bits representation of numbers. Nor would you use hexadecimal basis.

    But that is just a coincidence. Hexa is the basis we most often use to talk about bytes values. And talking about 8 bits representation of numbers is talking about bytes values.

    So, bottom line.

    14-255 = 0x0E-0xFF = -0xF1 = -241

    And, yes, 255 happens to have the same 8 bits representation as -1. -241 the same 8 bits representation as 15.

    So, that arithmetic operation is the same for a CPU as

    14-(-1) = 0x0E-(-0x01) = 0x0F = 15

    Note that you have to choose, tho.

    You can't choose to interpret half of the 8 bits numbers as signed one, and the other as unsigned one. Or else you are doomed to say silly things such as

    14-255 = +15

    (or, 0x0E-0xFF=0x0F)

    5 Answers1 month ago