The real answer to your question will depend on whether or not you plan to stop the earth's rotation instantly or slow it down to a stop over time.
If you slow the earth down over time, it may go completely unnoticed other than the days and nights will get longer and longer and you would become slightly heavier...No it is NOT centrifugal force (there is no such thing) it is linear momentum and centripetal accelleration that has a slightly countering effect on gravity. Even so, the effect is very small and you would only weigh a fraction more if the earth stopped spinning.
The most pronounced effects would be those caused by the ceasing of the day/night cycle.
On the other hand, if you were to stop the earth's rotation instantly, there would be a lurch eastward. Those at the equator would feel a the equivalent of around 1000m/h jolt. This is because they are already moving at that speed from west to east. If the earth stopped under them, they would tend to continue onward. Anything not tied down would suddenly jump eastward until friction (from air, water, solid objects) brings everything back to a standstill. And, of course, those who are farther away from the equator will experience less of a jolt as the velocity will be poprortional to the cosine of their latitudes.
Anyone standing at the pole will hardly notice anything at all except that the sun would stop moving in the sky.
Over several thousands of years, the earth would change its shape slightly from an oblate spheroid to a more spherical shape. This is because the equatorial bulge would no longer be supported by the centrifugal effect that is caused by the difference between linear accelleration and centripetal accelleration.
additionally the tides would take on a monthly cycle of two high and two low tides a month instead of one each day.
If the rotation of the earth was stopped by a short impulse, (by that I mean the force stopped the earth and then relased it), the fluid core of the earth would still be spinning and would start the earth rotating again but much more slowly. On the other hand, if the impulse was very long, (and by this I mean that something held the earth still long enough for the spinning core to stop spinning) then the earth's magnetic field would collapse and the surface would be exposed to some of the more nasty cosmic and gamma rays propagating through space.
Finally, after some thousands of years, the motion of the moon would actually restart the earth rotating. The moon would pull on the oceans, dragging them around the earth and over time, that tiny amount of global friction would start the earth spinning very slowly. Eventually the rotation would be one day per month.