With theism comes the belief of a god(s), and then the way we respect our god(s), either by prayer, sacrifices, rituals, etc.; then there are our own beliefs, laws, codes of conduct of sorts set forth by our god(s) or messenger(s)/prophet(s).
With atheism comes the disbelief of a god(s), so therefore the way we disrespect and disprove those who believe in god(s), such as discriminating other religions, killing those who follow it, creating laws to destroy or end it, science, etc.; then there are those beliefs, laws, codes of conduct of sorts they try to discern, disprove, or dispute that was set forth by anyone called as spiritual.
The only thing after atheism itself is an atheism that is all about disproving all religions, more so by science, like you suggested.
The only way to go back from zero is to go negative, in other words, prove that what was positive is completely 100% inaccurate, false, and impossible. The problem with that, is that religion is a belief. We live on beliefs, thoughts, feelings, etc. It is hard to try and to discern those who believe in such things to not believe in it.
That is also where science runs into a problem. Science is a religion, even if you stand there and say it's not. A religion is a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, esp. when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs. Isn't that what science is? Science tells us how we were made, yet after hundreds of years no one can agree. Yet we are taught that the universe is created by the big bang? It is a belief. We can't even prove and come up with an answer of how humans came about, yet we can define how our world came about? I think not. It is a belief. It can be as scientifically proven to be true, but yet there are those weird anomalies in the world.
Either way everything is a religion, even atheism. Sure, there is no belief in god nor worshipping involved, but it is still a belief. No one will know for sure till we die.
So, I guess my answer to your question, is anything that is groundbreaking enough to disprove all religions of the world enough that it breaks people away from their religions. Perhaps maybe even the move of aliens or machinery (robotics) might make a shift in the belief system. With the increasing UFO sightings, I can see a shift of beliefs if it could somehow be proven we aren't alone.