how is glucose absorbed into our body and provides us energy?
- 1 decade agoFavorite Answer
Glucose is the body's fuel. Without glucose, or without being able to convert it into energy rapidly and efficiently, we cannot survive in good health. So it's very important that our energy-metabolism system works efficiently. Here is a very simple explanation of how we convert glucose into energy.
* In response to the rise in blood-glucose levels (say) after a meal, the pancreas releases insulin which "mops up" the glucose and carries it to cells that need extra energy.
* The glucose enters the cell by special molecules in the membrane called “glucose transporters”.
* The cells that need glucose have specific insulin receptors on their surface so that insulin can bind to them, encouraging glucose entry and utilization in the cells.
* Once inside your cells, the glucose is burned to produce heat and adenosine triphosyphate, (ATP) a molecule that stores and releases energy as required by the cell.
* The metabolism of glucose into energy may occur either in combination with oxygen (aerobic metabolism) or without it (anaerobic metabolism). The oxygen used comes from the mitochondria - tiny bodies inside the cell. However, red blood cells do not have mitochondria, so they change glucose into energy without the use of oxygen.
* Glucose is also converted to energy in muscle cells - who are probably the most important energy "customers". These muscle cells do contain mitochondria so they can process glucose with oxygen. But even if oxygen-levels in the muscle-cell mitochondria fall too low, the cells can proceed to convert glucose into energy without oxygen. Unfortunately, turning glucose into energy without oxygen produces the by-product lactic acid. And too much lactic acid makes your muscles ache.
Our food-intake and energy-needs do not always coincide. For example, we may have lots of food, but no energy needs. Or we may need lots of energy but no food in sight! Fortunately, glucose can be stored as glycogen (an "energy reserve") for later use. Without such a glucose storage system, we would either have to eat constantly or risk a dangerous lack of energy.
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- EllenLv 44 years ago
Yes. The various fats, sugars, and proteins all ultimately metabolize down into basic glucose, the main difference being the amount of time and energy required to metabolize them. The other nutrients that we require with regards to cellular respiration are necessary to protect and stabilize the chemical processes and organelles that actually facilitate respiration. Remember, while oxidation (as well as combustion) is a key process in producing energy from matter, it is also incredibly destructive. Oxidation is basically a slow, low temperature, nonvolatile version of combustion, therefore it will obviously cause damage to the structures it comes into contact with. This is what actually causes our bodies to age and deteriorate. Our mitochondria produce far more energy than we require, however, our bodies are not built utilize the excess. But that's getting off subject. Back to the necessity of nutrients in metabolism. B-12, or cobalamin, is a cobalt-containing molecule that is vital to the metabolism of literally every cell in the body. It also affects DNA synthesis and regulation and acts as both an enzyme and a cofactor in the synthesis of many other important nutrients. So you see, it is the nutrients themselves that allow cellular respiration to occur in the first place.
- 1 decade ago
Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Exercise
Since all digestible forms of carbohydrates are eventually transformed into glucose, it is important to consider how glucose is able to provide energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to various cells and tissues. Glucose is metabolized in three stages:
2. the Krebs Cycle
3. oxidative phosphorylationSource(s): the complete article can be found here in detail: http://www.sparknotes.com/health/carbohydrates/sec...
- 1 decade ago
Glucose is readily absorbed by the body probably in the small intestines. It can easily enter the blood stream. However, it can not enter cells without the assistance of insulin. Insulin provides the "key". Diabetes is a disease that involves lack of insulin or resistance of the cells to insulin. One organ that does not require the assistance of insulin is the brain. The brain can use glucose as it pleases.Source(s): Nursing student
- Anonymous1 decade ago
carb metabolized break down into glucose C6H12O6
C6H12O6 is - 1260.18 kJ/mol
O2 is 0
CO2 gas is - 393.5 kJ/mol
H2O liq is - 285.83 kJ/mol
the human breathing chemical reaction is
energy = glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water
energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O
energy = ( - 1260.18) + 6(0) ---> 6( - 393.5) + 6( - 285.83)
energy = ( - 1260.18) + 0 ---> ( - 2361) + ( - 1714.98)
energy = ( - 2361) + ( - 1714.98) - ( - 1260.18) - 0
energy = - 2815.8 kJ/mol exothermic (negative)
meaning to say the glucose chemical reaction with the oxygen breathed in release energy 2815.8 kJ/mol to the body.