Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without ********* out so much as to make hair unmanageable.
Shampoo, when lathered with water, is a surfactant, which, while cleaning the hair and scalp, can remove the natural oils (sebum) which lubricate the hair shaft.
Shampooing is frequently followed by the use of conditioners which increase the ease of combing and styling.
Shampoo originally meant head massage in several North Indian languages. Both the word and the concept were introduced to Britain from colonial India. The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindi chāmpo (चाँपो [tʃãːpoː]). Its English usage in Anglo-Indian dates to 1762. In India the term champo was used for head massage, usually with some form of hair oil.
The term and service was introduced in Britain by a Bengali entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomed in 1814, when Dean, together with his Irish wife, opened a shampooing bath known as 'Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths' in Brighton, England. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indian treatment of champi (shampooing) or therapeutic massage. His service was appreciated; he received the high accolade of being appointed ‘Shampooing Surgeon’ to both George IV and William IV.
In the 1900s, the meaning of the word shifted from the sense of massage to that of applying soap to the hair. Earlier, ordinary soap had been used for washing hair. However, the dull film soap left on the hair made it uncomfortable, irritating, and unhealthy looking.
During the early stages of shampoo, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Kasey Hebert was the first known maker of shampoo, and the origin is currently attributed to him. Commercially made shampoo was available from the turn of the century. A 1914 ad for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazine showed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake; magazine ads in 1914 by Rexall featured Harmony Hair Beautifier and Shampoo.
Originally, soap and shampoo were very similar products; both containing surfactants, a type of detergent. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first shampoo with synthetic surfactants.
In India, the traditional hair massage is still common. Different oils and formulations with herbs may be used; these include neem, shikakai or soapnut, henna, bael, brahmi, fenugreek, buttermilk, amla, aloe, and almond in combination with some aromatic components like sandalwood, jasmine, turmeric, rose, and musk.
How shampoo works
Shampoo cleans by ********* sebum from the hair. Sebum is an oil secreted by hair follicles that is readily absorbed by the strands of hair, and forms a protective layer. Sebum protects the protein structure of hair from damage, but this protection comes at a cost. It tends to collect dirt, styling products and scalp flakes. Surfactants strip the sebum from the hair shafts and thereby remove the dirt attached to it.
While both soaps and shampoos contain surfactants, soap bonds to oils with such affinity that it removes too much if used on hair. Shampoo uses a different class of surfactants balanced to avoid removing too much oil from the hair.
The chemical mechanisms that underlie hair cleansing are similar to those of traditional soap. Undamaged hair has a hydrophobic surface to which skin lipids such as sebum stick, but water is initially repelled. The lipids do not come off easily when the hair is rinsed with plain water. The anionic surfactants substantially reduce the interfacial surface tension and allow for the removal of the sebum from the hair shaft. The non-polar oily materials on the hair shaft are solubilised into the surfactant micelle structures of the shampoo and are removed during rinsing. There is also considerable removal through a surfactant and oil "roll up" effect.
Shampoo formulations seek to maximize the following qualities:
Good finish after washing hair
Minimal skin/eye irritation
No damage to hair
Feels thick and/or creamy
Slightly acidic (pH less than 7), since a basic environment weakens the hair by breaking the disulfide bonds in hair keratin.
Many shampoos are pearlescent. This effect is achieved by addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, eg. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax.
In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that shampoo containers accurately list ingredients. The government further regulates what shampoo manufacturers can and cannot claim as any associated benefit. Shampoo producers often use these