Gymnosperms are woody trees with cone like appearance. They bear no flowers, no fruits but bear seeds. The seeds are naked as they are not covered by the fruit wall.
Examples: Pinus, Cycas and Cedrus trees
Angiosperms consists of of herbs, shrubs and trees.
The ovules are located within the ovary, so seeds are found enclosed within the fruit wall
Eg: coconut, orchid
1. In both case sporophyte is independent and it gets differentiated into root, stem and leaves
2. Reproductive structures are special organs formed for that purpose alone
3. The male gametes are not ciliated generally and are transferred to the egg by siphonogamy
4. In both cases the megaspore is retained within the megasporangium and seeds are formed
5. Secondary thickening takes place in both groups
1. In gymnosperms the reproductive structures are cones which are unisexual
2. The ovules are exposed, i.e., they are not located in the ovary.
3. After fertilization, the ovules develop into naked seeds.
4. Fertlization is simple
5. Endosperm is haploid
6. In gymnosperms the pollination is by wind alone
7. In gymnosperms, generally the xylem contains only tracheids. Vessels are absent
8. The phloem has no companion cells
1. In Angiosperms, the flowers are the reproductive organs and they may be both unisexual and bisexual.
2. The ovules are enclosed in the ovary.
3. After fertilization, the ovules develop into seeds inside the fruit.
4. Fertilization is double
5. Endosperm is triploid
6. In angiosperms, different agents are involved in pollination
7. Angiosperms vessels are always are present
8. Companion cells are present